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The purpose of lapping is to meet flatness and parallelism and to make the 2 parts joined together engage exactly. It is a process of putting abrasive material between the surface of object and the surface plate, having the object and the surface plate to make relative motion, and making the abrasive material shave an extremely tiny amount off the object surface to get smooth finished surface with exact dimension.
The purpose of polishing is to improve surface roughness, keeping the flatness and parallelism, and to get rid of the scratches after lapping. The work process is the same as lapping, except that the finer abrasive material improves the roughness of the object surface to get surface like a mirror.
It is actually difficult to differentiate lapping and polishing like above. However simply speaking lapping is to meet the dimension and preciseness of the object, while polishing is to gloss the object surface like a mirror after lapping.
It requires technology and its knowhow to select the abrasive material and the surface plate as per object material and product.
1um or less for the object size of Φ100 or less and 3um for the maximum size of Φ300 possible.
Glass group – Sapphire, Quartz, Bk-7, BORO33 and most other glass products
Ceramic group – Al2O3, SiC(CVD- SiC), ZrO2, Si, Ti, Si3N4 and various other ceramic products
Metal group – Aluminum, Stainless steel, Tungsten, Copper, Hard metal, etc., hard or soft, all possible.
Assurance of best surface finish irrespective of the material.